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YARA INTERNATIONAL ASA

NUTRIOX
Reduktan
Value-added services
Sustainability
Production Processes
Yara Centennial

Mineral Fertilizer from Yara International ASA


Yara International ASA supplies products, concepts and services for water treatment, industrial wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater treatment and portable water treatment.

Yara International ASA also supplies plant nutrients in the form of mineral fertilizers, the sustainable major source of plant nutrients required to ensure adequate and quality production.

Yara International ASA also supplies Mineral Fertilizer, Nitrogen fertilizers, Ammonium Di Phosphate, Nitrogen Chemicals, Bio Nutrient and Carbon Dioxide for neutralization.

Water treatment

Yara International ASA provides concepts, services and products for purifying drinking water and industrial and municipal waste water. Yara International ASA has systems for optimal dosage control, with measuring equipment and technical expertise on the processes and products.

Industrial and Municipal Wastewater

Yara International ASA offers different products adapted to industries like water, timber converting, foodstuffs, metallurgy, mining and petrochemicals for the treatment of both process and waste water.

Yara International ASA supplies NUTRIOX® which prevents the formation of Hydrogen Sulphide and removes any H2S that has already been formed. Yara International ASA also supplies organic coagulants used to remove suspended materials and to condition sludge, and Polyacrylamides (flocculants) for the sedimentation, flotation and draining of sludge.

Potable water

Yara International ASA supplies process solutions to better purifying effect, reduce corrosion and stabilize the water.




fertilizer_nutriox

fertilizer_nutriox

Potable Water

Yara International ASA supplies industries with Carbon dioxide (CO2), marble in the form of Micronised marble and crushed marble, oxygen and polymer for water treatment.

  • Carbon dioxide: source of carbonate in the corrosion control of drinking water and in the neutralization of alkaline waste-water
  • Marble: source of calcium and carbonate in conjunction with corrosion control of drinking water and in neutralizing acidic wastewater.
  • Oxygen: reduces/removes H2S, precipitates some of the dissolved iron, improves taste of water, aerobic biological processes and increases capacity of purification plant in wastewater
  • Polymer: provides Polyacrylamide to bind small particles to larger aggregates (flocs)

Municipal and industrial water, wastewater and sludge

Yara International ASA provides products and solutions to prevent the formation of hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) and remove existing H2S by using NUTRIOX®, CO2, achieve optimal biological purification by using bio-nutrients, remove suspended material by using organic coagulants (polyamine) and dewater sludge using flocculants (polymers).

  • Bio-nutrient: optimize the dosage of nutrients for the biological purification of wastewater, provide wide range of nutrient chemicals in both liquid and solid form (nitrogen and phosphorous) to meet the specific requirements of the effluent water
  • Carbon dioxide: for neutralization of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants, pulp and process water in the pulp and paper industry
  • The NUTRIOX® concept: used for Municipal sewer systems, Gravity sewers, Pressure mains, Manholes, Pumping stations, Municipal treatment plants, Industrial wastewater and sludge and Industrial process water. 
  • Oxygen: for biological treatment of leachate water and wastewater.
  • Polyamine: for treating municipal and industrial processing water and wastewater, to remove (coagulate) suspended matter from processing water and wastewater and for conditioning sludge
  • Polymer: for treating municipal and industrial processing water and wastewater

Air Treatment

Yara International ASA markets four Reduktan products, REDUKTAN®Ammonia (100%), REDUKTAN®Ammonia solution (25%), REDUKTAN®Urea solution (32.5-40%) and REDUKTAN®Urea (100%). The Reduktan products are used for reducing the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx).NOx is the designation for NO2 + NO.

Ph Control

Yara International ASA has developed pH control concept using liquid carbon dioxide, CO2, a beneficial alternative technology to mineral acid.

Reservoir Treatment

Yara International ASA PetroCare® Process is the treatment and prevention of reservoir souring encourages biological Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulphide and Inhibits its Production in Oil Reservoirs. Yara International ASA supplies PetroCare® process for ballast is used for oil polluted water treatment.




product_reduktan

product_reduktan1

Business model and global reach

Yara International ASA, a global player in the fertilizer industry, has its core business in production and marketing of nitrogen fertilizer such as urea and nitrates. Yara International ASA also produces and sells ammonia, the key raw material for all nitrogen fertilizers.

To complement its nitrogen based product offerings, Yara International ASA also markets third-party sourced phosphate and potash fertilizers containing the other two primary plant nutrients, phosphorous (P) and potassium (K).

In addition, Yara International ASA markets value-added specialty fertilizers, as well as certain industrial gases, nitrogen chemicals and technical nitrates that, in general, are co-products of its fertilizer operations.

Since 1999, Yara International ASA has grown both organically and through well-timed acquisitions in key growth markets.




speciality fertilizers

speciality fertilizers

Yara is committed to safe and environmentally efficient production of plant nutrient products and to help make selected industrial processes more environment friendly.

High quality plant nutrients are a valuable resource in the growing of healthy, nutritious food. For a global population that grows every day.

Yara is committed to the safe and environmentally efficient production of plant nutrients. And, to work closely with farmers in ensuring that the nutrients are applied in a responsible and efficient way.

Yara is working with its industrial customers to develop innovative applications of its products that are making selected industrial processes more efficient and more environment friendly - and jobs more secure.

Feeding people, preserving forests
A balanced nutrient management ensures that the soils receive the nutrients they need to grow more quality food for more people. By strengthening the fertility of agricultural fields, there is less pressure on clearing forested lands. That is important, since they function as the earth’s green lungs, consuming much of the carbon dioxide that causes the greenhouse effect.

Only fertile, healthy soils can sustain the high yields necessary for boosting food stocks. Nutrients removed in the form of harvested crops, must be fully replenished. If not, soil fertility deteriorates, and subsequent crops will be smaller and contain less protein.

This is frequently the issue in poor parts of the world. Food production lags due to depleted nutrient reserves in the soils. Or, farmers burn vegetation to cultivate virgin lands, thus contributing to deforestation and attendant environmental problems, such as erosion and reduction of CO2-absorbing biomass.

Growing healthy plants

In Western Europe, farmers use fertilizers extensively. In this part of the world, we cooperate with farmers to optimize the application of nutrients. That is, to adjust the supply of nutrients to the specific needs of crops. Plants are genetically programmed to realize a natural growth potential, provided their many diverse needs are catered for.

At Yara, we supply systems and devices, such as the N–Sensor and the N-Tester, that help farmers apply the correct amount of Nitrogen. These tools are used to measure the actual nutrient status of the plants and calculate the need for more, taking crop, soil, climate and growth stage into account. These are effective tools that make precise application of fertilizers possible.

Reaching the optimal application of nutrients, has a range of benefits. The crops develop fully, in terms of size and quality of the plants. The farmers’ investment in fertilizers yields high returns. The crops receive the best prices in the market place. Consumers get easy access to safe, nutritious and tasty food plants. And a minimum of nutrients leaches into the water systems.

The strong incentive to promote efficient fertilizer practice has crystallized into the publishing of a book on the topic, “Fertilizers, Agriculture and the Environment”, available to users of Yara fertilizers.

Producing safely

Yara has its energies focused on distributing knowledge on the correct use of both fertilizers and industrial products to ensure maximum benefit for customers. But we are equally committed to cleaner, more efficient production processes and to providing a safe workplace for our employees. We adhere to strict standards in all aspects of the manufacturing of plant nutrients and related industrial products.

Yara’s production plants meet all environmental, safety and technical standards and applicable legislation.

Our products are handled and distributed in a safe way, where relevant regulations and legislation are respected. We ensure that the high quality at the factory gate is maintained until the product reaches its final destination at the end user’s site.

Health and safety

Yara maintains the targets that it has been pursuing as part of Norsk Hydro, aiming to be among the best companies with regard to Health and safety. Our work has been governed by Hydro’s environmental principles, with more specific requirements set in Hydro’s technical standards and Health and safety procedures. These are now being revised and updated to form part of Yara’s steering documents.

In addition, Yara’s Best Practice standards apply to our production processes and storage and materials handling routines, as well as the standards that we have drawn up in collaboration with our competitors in Europe and the rest of the world. Public authority requirements applicable to specific units are also followed. As an example, these may include risk analyses and requirements in connection with handling, storage and transport of products.

Yara requires all production units to set annual Health and safety targets and action plans. These are followed up on a monthly basis by the management of Yara.  In addition a set of Minimum requirements to Safety Management has been established.  These requirements have been agreed with all plant managers and discussed with the employees’ representatives through the European Works Council (EWC).  A set of Safety Principles have been agreed between the Yara Management and European Works Council outlined in Agreement between the European Works Council and Yara Management.

The safety improvement work is now focused around understanding and analysis of risks and thorough analysis of accidents and near misses.  Learning from near misses is regarded as a very important tool to maintain our continues safety performance improvement.

A safety program focusing on safety behaviour is going to be launched during 2004 following successful pilot programs in some of our plants.




plant nutrient products

plant nutrient products

Production processes
In the nitrophosphate process used by Yara, nitric acid is used for digestion of the phosphate rock. This benefits the extraction of Calcium by crystallisation as Calcium Nitrate (CN), and processing of high quality prilled or granular CN products.

The majority of manufacturing processes for Complex Fertilizers are based on dissolution of phosphate rock in mineral acid followed by neutralisation, concentration and finally, granulation or prilling. In some processes sulphuric acid is used for the dissolution of phosphates. The calcium originating from the rock is then extracted as gypsum, a waste material that can cause environmental problems.

Nitrogen-based products
Nitrogen makes up 78% of the air we breathe. In this form, it is inert and insoluble, and not accessible to plants. Ammonia is the basic building block for producing virtually all other forms of nitrogen-based fertilizers. To a lesser extent, it is also used directly as a commercial fertilizer. Ammonia is produced by reacting nitrogen from the air with hydrogen at high pressure and temperature in the presence of a catalyst. The hydrogen is most often produced by reacting natural gas with water at high temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst. Natural gas is also used as a process gas (i.e., an energy source) to generate the heat required in the ammonia production process, but this use is minor compared to its use as a raw material in ammonia production.

Because there are natural gas deposits in many locations, ammonia and nitrogen fertilizers are produced in many countries. British Sulphur, a specialist publisher and independent consultant to the fertilizer industry, has recently reported that ammonia is produced in approximately 68 countries; urea, the most common of nitrogen fertilizer products, is produced in about 56 countries.

Although the number of chemical processes used in the production of nitrogen fertilizer products is small, there is a wide variety of finished products. The diversity of products facilitates site-specific applications, which take into account factors such as soil type and the requirements of the crop, thus making it possible to achieve optimal plant nutrition.

The principal nitrogen-based fertilizer products are:

  • Ammonia – used as a fertilizer and as a building block for other nitrogen products, including intermediate products for industrial applications and finished fertilizer products. Ammonia, consisting of 82% nitrogen, is stored as a liquid under pressure or refrigerated. It is gaseous at ambient temperatures and is injected into the soil as a gas. The direct application of ammonia requires a considerable investment by farmers in pressurized storage tanks and injection machinery.
  • Urea – formed by reacting ammonia with carbon dioxide (CO2) at high pressure. From the warm urea liquid produced in the first, wet stage of the process, the finished product is mostly produced as a solid product (containing 46% nitrogen) typically applied in solid form. Urea can be combined with ammonium nitrate solution to make liquid nitrogen fertilizer (urea ammonium nitrate or UAN).
  • Ammonium nitrate (AN) – produced by reacting nitric acid, an intermediate chemical feedstock produced from ammonia, with ammonia to form a concentrated, watery solution that is subsequently solidified in a prilling or granulation process. Ammonium nitrate is a solid fertilizer (containing approximately 34% nitrogen) typically applied in solid form. Ammonium nitrate is water soluble and used in various fertilizer solutions.
  • Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) – a mixture of AN and calcium or magnesium carbonate (containing 25-28% nitrogen), produced by mixing calcium and/or magnesium carbonate into an ammonium nitrate solution before the solidification process. The lime content of CAN also helps to neutralize soil acidity.
  • Ammonium sulphate (AS) – has a relatively low nitrogen content (21%). In addition to nitrogen, it contains sulphur (24%). It is used where the lack of sulphur in the soil is a limiting factor in plant growth.
  • Calcium nitrate (CN) – produced by dissolving a calcium salt such as limestone or the calcium phosphate of phosphate rock in nitric acid. In the latter case, it is a co-product with nitrophosphate products. (See the product listings under “Phosphorus” below.) CN is used to remedy plant deficiencies in calcium and ameliorate soil acidification. It contains 15.5% nitrogen in nitrate form and 19% water-soluble calcium. The product is water soluble and particularly suited for water-born fertilizer application systems.
  • Potassium nitrate (PN) – produced by reacting sodium nitrate with potassium chloride. Potassium nitrate is used as a potassium and nitrogen fertilizer. Potassium nitrate contains 13.5% nitrogen and 45% water-soluble potassium as K2O. The water suitability makes it particularly suited for liquid-based applications.
  • Because of their chemical similarity, AN, CAN, CN and PN are often collectively referred to as “nitrates.”




fertilizer production

yara production site

100 YEARS YOUNG

When Yara President and CEO Thorleif Enger rang the bell to start trading of the Yara share in March 2004, he also rang in a new era for a company that will be 100 years young on December 2, 2005.

Yara is the leading supplier of plant nutrients in the form of mineral fertilizers and internationally recognized as the most global player in the fertilizer industry. We also develop and market a growing ‘industrial’ portfolio, that includes environmental and food industry products. Behind our name change, from Hydro Agri to Yara, lies a century-long tradition of innovative technologies, commercial daring and strategic partnerships.

Breakthrough

The Yara story began in 1905, when a group of scientists produced the world's first commercially viable nitrogen fertilizer (calcium nitrate) in Notodden, Norway. Using the Birkeland-Eyde process, which utilized hydroelectric power to extract nitrogen from air, they provided the solution to one of the most pressing problems of the day – adequate food supply.

The use of minerals as plant nutrition began with German chemist Justus von Liebig’s discovery that organic nutrients need to be mineralized in order to be taken up by the roots of the plants. His work resulted in the world’s first industrial phosphorous fertilizer based on naturally occurring minerals in 1842, and the commercial supply of mineral potassium followed a few years later.

But available sources of mineral nitrogen, like Chile salpeter, were limited, and agricultural output had stagnated at the beginning of the 20th century. With nitrogen being the main plant nutrient, Europe, Asia, Australia and America faced the challenge of how to provide enough food for their increasing populations. Intensive research efforts were set in motion to develop a feasible method for industrial manufacture of nitrogen for plant nutrition. But it was a combination of Norwegian hydroelectric power and scientific and technological excellence, matched by Swedish, French and German capital that provided the breakthrough.

It attracted immediate attention from the rest of the world and resulted in the foundation of Norsk Hydro on December 2nd, 1905. The entrepreneurial spirit embodied by Hydro’s leading lights – Kristian Birkeland, Sam Eyde and Marcus Wallenberg – also played a key role in Norway’s modernization during the 1900s.

War and peace

Although Hydro later diversified into other fields, mineral fertilizer remained one of its core products and became an essential ingredient in modern agriculture. In the same way that it allowed farmers to increase their harvests and fostered optimism in the early 1900s, mineral fertilizer helped to re-establish food supplies in Europe after World War II. Despite the destruction of the war, Hydro was quick to resume fertilizer production and deliveries to Europe. In this way, it was able to contribute to the post-war industrial renewal being prioritized by European governments. In turn, Europe became the cornerstone for Hydro’s development into the only global supplier of plant nutrition and agronomic services.

Pioneering spirit

During the 1960s there was a major shift in fertilizer technology, with hydrocarbons becoming the chief source of raw material for ammonia, the main nitrogen intermediate. Hydro’s ammonia production in Norway moved from hydroelectricity to hydrocarbons and two new ammonia plants were built in Porsgrunn.

At the same time, Hydro also made moves to secure access to raw material supplies by entering North Sea oil exploration and, in 1969, establishing Qatar Fertiliser Company (Qafco) as a joint venture with Industries Qatar. Qafco played a key role in the Qatari government’s industrialization program and provided Hydro with a high-quality low-cost fertilizer production facility. Qafco is now the world's largest single site producer of urea and ammonia and a model of successful partnership.

By the 1970s, Qafco’s strategic location and Hydro’s growing sales and logistics network, had helped extend operations to Asia, the Middle East, South America and Africa. Hydro’s fertilizer division (Hydro Agri) was characterized by a pioneering spirit, combined with a unique emphasis on domestic marketing and local partnership. This proved a winning strategy and reinforced Hydro’s willingness to invest in and develop emerging markets. China followed in 1982 - twenty years before it became the world’s largest fertilizer consumer – and Agri then set its sights on developing the African market. A Zimbabwe office was opened in 1985, and a presence established which lasts to this day.

Turnaround to demerger

Hydro Agri extended its marketing network during the nineties and continued to expand through strategic acquisitions in key growth markets and collaboration with key partners around the globe. However, in response to stiff industry competition and market forces, the company launched a three-year turnaround program from 1999-2001 to reduce costs and improve productivity. As a result, Agri became Europe’s leading low-cost fertilizer producer.

From 2002, Agri achieved a position within the top 25 percent of its industry peers and control of a six percent share of the global mineral fertilizer business. On March 25, 2004, Hydro Agri was demerged from Norwegian industrial conglomerate Norsk Hydro ASA and listed as Yara International ASA. Yara could focus on its core business, develop market ambitions and position itself for value creation. Today, Yara is the world’s leading provider of mineral fertilizers, with operations in 50 countries on five continents.

Industry shaper

Yara’s first 100 years have been a process of constant change, and this will continue for the next 100. At the same time, we have taken great care to preserve the best of our traditions, as symbolized by the Viking Ship brand. A century of innovative technologies, commercial daring and strategic partnerships has equipped us with financial strength and leading knowledge. We aim to use this to partner with growers in realizing sustainable food production for the world’s growing population. And we aim to take the leading role in shaping the fertilizer industry into a model of sustainable business.

In this way, by embracing change and ensuring continuity, we are building a solid future for ourselves, our partners and the community.




yara sam eyde

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